By Taylor Seybolt - Humanitarian Military Intervention: The Conditions for Success and Failure
.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007 and 2008.
Sample chapter: "Controversies About Humanitarian Military Intervention"
The central premise of this book is that humanitarian military intervention can be justified as a policy option only if decision makers can be reasonably sure that intervention will do more good than harm. The book defines success as saving lives in the short-term and sets out a methodology for estimating the number of lives saved by a particular military intervention. Analysis of 17 military operations in areas that were the defining cases of the 1990s—northern Iraq after the Gulf War, Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Rwanda, Kosovo and East Timor—shows that a slight majority were successful by this measure.
In every conflict studied, however, some military interventions succeeded while others failed. To explain the different outcomes, the book highlights the importance of the interveners’ objectives and strategy. Four types of humanitarian military intervention are offered: helping to deliver emergency aid, protecting aid operations, saving the victims of violence and defeating the perpetrators of violence. The focus on strategy within these four types allows an exploration of the political and military dimensions of humanitarian intervention and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each of the four types.
By Simon Reich, Ariane Chebel d'Appollonia - Immigration, Integration, and Security: America and Europe in Comparative Perspective
.Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2008.
Acts of terrorism in Britain and Europe and the events of 9/11 in the United States have greatly influenced immigration, security, and integration policies in these countries. Yet many of the current practices surrounding these issues were developed decades ago, and are ill-suited to the dynamics of today’s global economies and immigration patterns.
At the core of much policy debate is the inherent paradox whereby immigrant populations are perceived as posing a potential security threat yet bolster economies by providing an inexpensive workforce. Strict attention to border controls and immigration quotas has diverted focus away from a significant dilemma: the integration of existing immigrant groups. Often restricted in their civil and political rights and targets of xenophobia, racial profiling, and discrimination, immigrants are unable or unwilling to integrate into the population. These factors breed distrust, disenfranchisement, and hatred—factors that potentially engender radicalization and can threaten internal security.
The contributors compare policies on these issues at three relational levels: between individual EU nations and the U.S., between the EU and U.S., and among EU nations. What emerges is a timely and critical examination of the variations and contradictions in policy at each level of interaction and how different agencies and different nations often work in opposition to each other with self-defeating results. The contributors offer fresh perspectives and examine significant case studies, while laying the groundwork for future debate on these crucial issues.
By R. Charli Carpenter - Born of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones
.Bloomfield: Kumarian Press, 2007.
Born of War is a collection of case studies examining children born of wartime rape and sexual exploitation in various country contexts and from different theoretical perspectives by both academics and humanitarian practitioners. The project was the result of two interdisciplinary workshops, one hosted by GSPIA with the assistance of the Ford Institute and the Women's Studies Department in 2004, and includes contributors from seven countries. The volume is one component of a broader research initiative on children born of war, for which Carpenter has received funding from the National Science Foundation and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundations. Pitt students and staff contributing to the project included Betcy Jose-Thota, Robyn Wheeler, Robert Filar, Sandy Monteverde, Angela Gasparetti and Emily Huisman.
By Simon Reich, H. Richard Friman - Human Trafficking, Human Security and the Balkans
.Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 2007.
In the aftermath of four Yugoslav wars, ongoing efforts at reconstruction in South Eastern Europe have devoted relatively limited attention to dimensions of human security that enhance protections for the region’s most vulnerable populations in their daily lives. It is in this context that South Eastern Europe, and especially the Western Balkan region, has emerged as a nexus point in human trafficking.
Human Trafficking, Human Security, and the Balkans brings together leading scholars, NGO representatives, and government officials to analyze and offer solutions to this challenge. The contributors explore the economic dynamics of human trafficking in an era of globalization, which has greatly facilitated not only the flow of goods and services but also the trade in human beings. They also examine the effectiveness of international and transnational policies and practice, the impact of peacekeeping forces, and the emergence of national and regional action plans in the Western Balkans and, more broadly, in South Eastern Europe. Finally, they consider the nature and ramifications of the gap between human security rhetoric and institutional policy steps against human trafficking.