Children and War

By R. Charli Carpenter - Born of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones.Bloomfield: Kumarian Press, 2007.
Born of War is a collection of case studies examining children born of wartime rape and sexual exploitation in various country contexts and from different theoretical perspectives by both academics and humanitarian practitioners. The project was the result of two interdisciplinary workshops, one hosted by GSPIA with the assistance of the Ford Institute and the Women's Studies Department in 2004, and includes contributors from seven countries. The volume is one component of a broader research initiative on children born of war, for which Carpenter has received funding from the National Science Foundation and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundations. Pitt students and staff contributing to the project included Betcy Jose-Thota, Robyn Wheeler, Robert Filar, Sandy Monteverde, Angela Gasparetti and Emily Huisman.

By R. Charli Carpenter - "Protecting Children Born of Sexual Violence: A New Report to the Humanitarian Sector" .University of Pittsburgh Ford Institute for Human Security (2006).
Children born of sexual violence and exploitation in conflict zones represent a particular vulnerable category of war-affected children, but their needs have been understudied by researchers, and underserved by the humanitarian sector. IN a recently released report entitled, “Protecting Children Born of Sexual Violence and Exploitation in Conflict Zones: Existing Knowledge and Practice Gaps” which was based on a series of consultations with humanitarian practitioners, R. Charli Carpenter, an affiliated faculty member of the Ford Institute for Human Security, makes several recommendations to the international organizations engaged I the protection of war-affected children. She suggests undertaking a multi-country study to report on victims of wartime rape and their children born as a result, providing assistance to survivors of gender-based violence and new mothers in conflict zones, as well as ensuring that children in this category are not falling through the cracks of existing programs. Dr. Carpenter also proposes that awareness of the issue should be raised within the context of advocacy of children’s human rights without exposing specific children through programming initiatives designed to reach them.

By Francisco Javier Moreno-Fuentes - "To Jump or to Sail?: Analyzing the Flows of Undocumented Migration into the European Union through the Southern Spanish Border".University of Pittsburgh Ford Institute for Human Security (2006).
Only nine miles at its narrowest point, the geographical separation between Spain and Morocco is a natural entrance to the southwestern flank of the European Union (EU), and is the world’s greatest development gap between two bordering nations. The "borderless Europe" policy of the Schengen Agreement has made stringent enforcement of border control policies a necessity for the Spanish government. Such policies have been unsuccessful and do not address the fundamental problems at the root of the migratory flow into Spain. Instead, the result has been greater profits for traffickers seeking to smuggle undocumented migrants from Morocco to Spain, and a segmentation among potential illegal immigrants. Moreno-Fuentes argues that the EU should focus on the linkages between immigration, integration and development policies in an adequate manner, rather than simply manning geographic borders.

By Vera Achvarina, Simon Reich - "Why Do Children Fight?: Explaining Child Soldier Ratios in African Intrastate Conflicts" ..
Child soldiers are a growing and an increasing publicized phenomenon. Yet theory regarding the causes of child soldier rates is underdeveloped and empirical evidence is largely anecdotal. In this paper we examine the two most popular explanations for child soldiers – poverty and orphan rates – and contrast them with an alternative explanation that focuses on the protection of internally displaced persons on refugee camps. Employing a variety of quantitative techniques, we then provide systemic tests involving intrastate conflicts in Africa for all three explanations. While by no means definitive, our research findings provide support for our explanation focusing on the protection of camps, suggesting that more empirical research along these lines is warranted.

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